Abstract: Distributed Leadership is a conceptual and analytical approach to understanding leadershipthat is focused on interactions between leaders and those they lead with the goal of driving instructional improvement and improving student outcomes by developing high-quality teaching and an educational culture that enables all students to thrive. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research available on distributed leadership. As new social and educational demands emerge, leadership responses need to be reformed at all school levels to ensure a school’s ability to provide a high-quality education. These transformations must be promoted from within each school center. The author describes and covers a deep review of the literature between 1981 and 2020. The source data for this research, (321articles), is derived from SCOPUS, Biblometrix Studio, and VOSviewer. The terms and their clusters were illustrated on graphs, and density maps were utilized. General recommendations are provided and challenges are identified for the incorporation of DL changes into the management of schools. The findings show that the literature refers explicitly to DL, wherein there are a number of interesting insights provided by theoretical articles. A conclusion is givenwith recommendations for further multidisciplinary research at the intersection of the fields in order to show the holistic landscape of this field.
All posts by: technovision
Abstract: The transformation of occupations in Indonesia due to digital technologies, especially in Artificial Intelligence, becomes a challenge for current educators to prepare their students for future work skills. This research study seeks to understand what students’ career aspirations are and their teachers’ predictions about their students’ future careers. There were 125 Indonesian primary school students and 141 teachers in Central Java province involved in this research. Students were asked to draw the aspiration of their future jobs when they grow up in the next 15-20 years, and teachers were asked to draw their predictions of their students’ future careers. The results show some similarities and differences between students’ aspirations and teachers’ predictions. Both students and teachers have the same idea about the importance of jobs that emphasizing the use of creativity. However, students had a tendency to select their future careers related to creative and performing arts, whereas teachers predicted their students’ future jobs as teachers and lecturers. The data also shows that students incline to draw the use of high-technology tools in their future jobs, whereas teachers tend to describe the use of conventional tools in their students’ future careers. Further results are discussed in relation to the International Standard Classification of Occupations skill levels jobs.
Technology Integration of Turkish Elementary School: Teaching Literacy Skills in the Post-COVID-19 Era
Abstract: This research aimed to explore the elementary school classroom teachers’ perceptions of technology integration into teaching literacy skills. A total of 122 elementary school classroom teachers working at different elementary schools from the middle socioeconomic statussetting, enrolled in the study voluntarily. In this study, a self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was used. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to get descriptive statistics (frequencies) corresponding the research questions. The research findings indicated that most of the elementary school teachers employ different perspectives, including whole language, literature-based and balanced instruction, and curriculum and related textbooks to teach literacy skills. In addition, the findings showed that teachers use technology to increase the effectiveness of teaching literacy skills and their goals of technology integration to teach literacy skills differentiate. The teachers also benefit from the social media applications and professional organizations in increasing their awareness of technology integration into teaching literacy skills. These results expand our understanding of Turkish elementary school classroom teachers’ technology integration into teaching literacy skills by revealing their perceptions.
Students’ Difficulties in Applying the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy: Results of a Survey Research
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the conventional high school instruction about conservation of mechanical energy in Canton Sarajevo. To that end we tested 441 high school students from six different schools in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) for their competence to apply the law of conservation of mechanical energy. Concretely, students were expected to solve 5 open-ended tasks that covered conceptually different situations. In each task we asked a set of sub-questions to check whether the students possess all the prerequisite sub-competencies for systematic reasoning about conservation of mechanical energy. In addition, we investigated how students’ ideas about conservation of mechanical energy were affected by the choice of the physical system, as well as by the choice of the observed time interval. Data analysis was performed on the level of individual tasks. The students’ written answers were analyzed and the frequencies of most prominent student responses were reported. Generally, it has been shown that most high school students from Sarajevo fail to identify and distinguish internal, external, conservative and non-conservative forces. Also, many students think that applicability of the conservation law does not depend on the chosen physical system and its evolution over time. We could conclude that high school students’ use of the conservation law is mostly based on remembering similar problem solving experiences, rather than on relevant strategic knowledge.
The Academic Dropout Wheel Analyzing the Antecedents of Higher Education Dropout in Education Studies
Abstract: Higher education dropout has been considered a major concern for several researchers in the field of education around the World. Although different studies were carried out to deal with the topic, they all faced common limitations. This paper explores the twofold research conducted to investigate higher education dropout in Education studies at two of the main Catalan public universities. First, a review of the different theoretical perspectives that tackled dropout was carried out to combine the direct and indirect dropout predictors. Second, some research was conductedin the faculties of Education in the selected two Catalan public universities to investigate the antecedents of higher education dropout. The utilized instrument discussed in this paper is the survey. In the first part, the predictors of higher education dropout were combined in a 5-layer model called the ̈Dimensions of Academic Dropout” wheel(Naaman, 2018). In the second part, the results of the survey analyzed quantitively revealed that dissatisfaction from the program and academic failure arethe most important antecedents of higher education dropout in education studies in Catalonia.
Abstract: In this study, the cultural adaptations of international students studying in Samsun in acculturation processes were examined. The cultural problems that international students inevitably face affect their adaptation to the countries they host. To investigate the effects of the international students’ some variables on the cultural adaptation in the context of Turkey constitutes the main objective of this study. In the study, it was examined whether the cultural adaptation levels of international students vary according to gender, place of residence, academic achievement level, education level, faculty they attend, and their age. Within the scope of the research, 670 foreign students participated in this study. According to the research results, the general adaptation level of the students is medium. While the participants’ age is a factor affecting cultural adaptation, the students’ cultural adaptation does not change according to their gender, place of residence, level of education, academic performance, and the faculties they attend.
A Novel Approach to Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in a Selected Ghanaian Junior High School
The study was about a novel approach to Integrated Science teaching and learning in a selected Ghanaian junior high school. In this study, the approach to teaching and learning Integrated Science has been made entirely new and meaningful in the sense that the four learning behaviours (acquisition of knowledge, comprehension, application of knowledge and experimental skills) which constitute profile dimensions were incorporated into the objective-stating, lesson-delivery and assessment of lessons. The researcher made use of profile dimensions in preparing lesson plans, taught students with the new strategy and assessed the impact of the new approach on students in terms of teaching and learning of science. The students were highly interested in answering low order question. About 80% of the questions were high order questions which were poorly answered. They actually showed very little interest in answering high order questions. However, as the weeks went by and the approach to teaching the new strategy was improved, students’ interests were aroused and sustained leading to students demonstrating high ability to answer high order questions conveniently. By the end of the study, the students were able to set up and conduct experiments, observe the outcome and draw their own conclusions. The students could classify items based on their characteristics and discuss issues (like balanced diet) and outline the effect of malnutrition in animals. Students’ scientific drawings were neater and clearer with less woolen lines. The implication of the finding is that, with these learning behaviours and skills, students could do analytical thinking and have the capacity to apply their knowledge to problems and issues.
This is a preliminary study investigating the risks associated with smartphone addiction by personality and type of phone. The results relate to personal background, personality, smartphone usage, smartphone satisfaction, level of exposure to risks, and correlations between the variables. A significant but partial correlation was found between personality and smartphone addiction, satisfaction, and level of risk. Smartphone addiction was found to be positively correlated with extraversion (r = .21, p < .01). Satisfaction was found to be correlated positively with extraversion (r = .28, p < .01), agreeableness (r = .41,p < .01), and conscientiousness (r = .38, p < .01), and negatively with emotional stability (r = -.57, p < .01). Risk was found to be negatively correlated with agreeableness (r = -.17, p < .05). Differences between types of phone in satisfaction, risk, and smartphone addiction were examined. A significant correlation (F(4, 145) = 2.96, p < .05) was found in the level of smartphone addiction, but no differences were found in smartphone satisfaction or the level of risk associated with smartphones (F(4, 145) = 2.96, p > .05 and F(4, 145)= .45, p > .05, respectively). According to the results, it seems that personality greatly affects phone usage and exposure to risks, regardless of the type of phone, and that reducing smartphone usage may be beneficial. However, further research using larger study samples is needed to confirm this.
School Principals’ Levels of Administrative Competences based on the Perceptions of Principals and Teachers
Abstract: This study aims to determine school principals’ level of administrative competencies according to the perceptions of teachers and principals. The study group consists of 134 teachers and 35 principals. The data of the research, which was designed in the survey model, were collected with the “School Administrators’ Competences Inventory”. The results revealed that school principals and teachers exhibited high levels of administrative Competencies as expected from the school principals. The opinions of the teachers and principals did not differ significantly in thecomparisons according to gender, seniority, school type, and duties (teacher vs. principal). Likewise, the correlation coefficients between the administrativecompetence subscales were estimated above a moderate level. As a result of the research, it can be said that teachers and principals have positive views about the competencies of the school administrators. However, though the Ministry of National Education and the academic community put great emphasis on it and a significant deal of knowledge and database has been accumulated about it, it is an important problem that school administration has not been defined as a profession in Turkey and no sustainable policy in this aspect has been developed yet.
Abstract: The capstone project in many academic institutions is the high point of undergraduate studies in engineering. The transition of graduates to industry is still not optimal, and there is a disparity between the needs of industry and the actual ability of academia to meet these needs. This study examines the role of the capstone project as a pedagogical tool in the age of Industry 4.0 in the field of product development, and as a bridge between academia and industry. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods, focusing on four stakeholders (academia, industry, students and advisors). The study is based on several sources, such as: semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, observations, and more. The study results indicate that the capstone project is important and valuable for industry and academia, as well as being perceived by students as the most important undergraduate course. Nevertheless, the results reveal that it has many gaps and shortcomings and illuminate the need for a deep perceptual and structural change. Academia should reconsider projects’ length and define milestones in which independent learning is optimally enabled. The projects’ contribution to academic institution reputation, should be considered when defining the project goals. Coping with the challenges and gaps found in this study, the project can also be used in order to reduce incongruities, while preparing the students in a better way for their professional role in changing environment.