Abstract: Executive functions (EFs) show promise as important mediators of adolescent academic performance. However, the expense of measuring EFs accurately has restricted most field-based research on them to smaller, non-longitudinal studies of homogeneous populations with specific diagnoses. We therefore monitored the development of 259 diverse, at-risk students’ EFs as they progressed from 6th through 12th grade. Teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for a random subset of their students. At that same time, those same students completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR) about themselves; teachers generally reported stronger EFs in students than students reported in themselves. Results further indicated that both BRIEF and BRIEF-SR Global Executive Composite (GEC) scores—measures of overall executive functioning—significantly predicted overall GPAs more than was already predicted by students’ gender, IEP status, and eligibility for free/reduced school lunch. BRIEF (teacher) scores were better predictors and contributed more to predictive accuracy than the BRIEF-SR (student) scores; BRIEF scores even added additional predictiveness to a model already containing BRIEF-SR scores, while the reverse did not hold. This study provides evidence for valid use of BRIEF and BRIEF-SR GEC scores to predict middle and high school GPAs, thereby supporting practitioners use for this purpose within similar, diverse, at-risk populations. The study also illuminates some of the EF development for this population during adolescence.
All posts by: technovision
Abstract: This qualitative study was done on the head teacher’s choice of leadership styles and their implication for better performance using one selected Private school in Mukono District (Uganda). It established that, head teacher’s choice of leadership styles did cause any hindrances amongst his staff so they worked harmoniously to achieve the set targets and goals, motivational-skills and team playing-role in all that happens in the school fosters active participation of all stake holders which eventually leads to attainment of results as targeted, thus recommending for effective delivery of quality education services and improved students’ academic performance is to be attained.
Do Students Develop the Way Universities Say They Do? Staff Perceptions of Student Development of Graduate Attributes in the Context of a Transnational Partnership in Kazakhstan
Abstract: There is a crisis in higher education internationally whereby the value of a degree is being called into question. One of the contributing factors to this problem is the growth of the sector internationally. Questions have arisen concerning the quality of provision, especially in the case of courses offered in different contexts as part of transnational partnerships. This research explores the perceptions of staff involved with the delivery of a unique transnational higher education partnership between a Russell Group university in the UK and a new university in Kazakhstan. The research sought to understand whether student development was perceived to be in line with the graduate attributes of the intuitions involved. The research was qualitative, using in depth semi structured interviews with members of faculty involved with the delivery of the foundation course, including administration staff, teachers and managers. Responses from participants indicated that the development of characteristics broadly aligned to those stated in graduate attributes did occur.
Abstract: Teacher motivation is an integral part of the success of the teaching and learning processes. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors underlying teacher recruitment, motivation and retention within a rural context. A case study design was employed as a methodology for the study. The collected data was analysed by establishing themes and emerging categories. The study established that teachers at rural schools were motivated by crucial work-related factors which were both intrinsic and extrinsic in nature. Employment opportunities, family background, leadership, rural environment and support services were some of the major factors motivating teacher to be recruited and retained with rural school teaching. The study recommended that school leaders should acquire a holistic understanding of the diverse factors motivating teachers, so that they can nurture these factors and motivate teachers appropriately. This will ensure that rural schools remains with motivated teaching personnel for improved performance.
Abstract: Successful SMEs in KwaZulu-Natal do not all follow formal or ‘classical’ strategic planning methodologies taught by most business schools. While many SMEs collapse within the first year of operation, others become successful in their endeavours to firstly make a living for themselves and secondly to employ others in order to improve and uplift the economy of South Africa. In this qualitative study, four business models were selected which are taught at most business schools. All SMEs engaged in this study acknowledged the value of using business models to support strategic planning. The medium size enterprises did prepare formal strategic plans and monitored all their activities on a regular basis. Small size SMEs use a mixture of business ‘creativity’ to accommodate uncertain economic conditions and make quick decisions and have been able to succeed even during poor economic times. A new concept called ‘extremely flexibile’ strategic planning was introduced to enable small size SMEs to consider an alternate method of making strategic plans in a less-structured manner.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of senior management training on transfer of learning among public officers trained by Kenya school of Government by establishing whether training interventions yield corresponding increase in the level of trainees’ knowledge, skills and attitude. F-test was used to find out whether there was any variance within the pretest and posttest samples, paired sample t- test and analysis of variance was used to statistically determine significant difference between posttest and pretest mean scores of 197 trainees who attended senior management course offered at Kenya School of Government in Kenya sampled through single stage cluster sampling technique. The study concluded that mean scores of the posttest trainee’s knowledge level and application/use were different from the mean scores of the trainee pretest scores suggesting a change in the trainees’ level of knowledge and applicability of the training to trainees’ work following the training intervention. Furthermore, the scores showed a positive change from the pretest to posttest. Nonetheless, it was noted that trainee’s perception of how important it is to learn a specific set of skills (attitude) does not change even after training intervention is administered. The study provides training effectiveness roadmap for Kenya school of Government to address assessment gap noted and provides an empirical rationale for Governments and corporate organizations to commit and make major investments on training of their employees as a useful way of staff capacity building towards enhanced employee performance.
The purpose of this study was to explore how academic leaders of Nepali universities are experiencing entrepreneurship, changing contexts of higher education, and entrepreneurial activities to cope up with those changing contexts in order to lead universities. This inquiry is based on interpretive paradigm, which includes a multi-method approach. Five universities of Nepal were the researcher’s living territories, where he interacted with nine participants in order to generate their narrative stories and experiences. The researcher explored and derived meanings from their stories and experiences, and in doing so, the researcher went through the process of coding, synthesizing, developing themes, analyzing, and interpreting meanings merging signature literature and theories of leadership and entrepreneurship. Through this enquiry, the researcher learned that entrepreneurship has multilayered meanings rooted in academic culture and society which could be understood being a part of the process. The researcher also learned that entrepreneurship is a process of dreaming and tracking a big picture, advocacy of change, elaboration of cognition, crossing the point of no return, a journey of togetherness, and tactful management of conflicts. The researcher also learned that changes in higher education in Nepal could be grouped under demand and supply market change. Within demand market, access, policy and awareness of parents and students are observed to have changed whereas within supply market, institutional providers, technology, pedagogy, curriculum and evaluation are found to have changed in higher education in Nepal. Apart from these, the researcher also learned that academic leaders of Nepali higher education have performed entrepreneurial activities like value added new programs, research and technological activities, fundraising activities, plan giving activities, retail sales and services, and real estate activities creating different values in order to cope up with those changing contexts in higher education. When the researcher examined the experiences and stories of the participants from leadership standpoint, he concludes that a vignette of entrepreneurship, changing context in higher education, and performance of entrepreneurial activities, have a nexus of dynamism in higher education.
Studying-away Strategies: A Three-wave Longitudinal Study of the Wellbeing of International Students in the United Kingdom
Abstract: Few longitudinal studies have examined the changes over time in international students’ wellbeing. This study aimed to explore any change in wellbeing from the beginning of the first semester until the end of the academic year and the impact of using ‘wellbeing away’ strategies on international students’ wellbeing. The survey used the Smith Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWELL), a ‘quality of university life’ questionnaire, a ‘being away strategies’ questionnaire and three open-ended questions focused on difficulties, coping strategies and the respondents’ most demanding time during their study period in the UK. A total of 104 participants completed the three phases. Repeated measurements showed no significant difference in students’ wellbeing over the academic year. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that positive effects were predicted by positive personality, lower level of course demands, by unwinding after study and by quality of life in the second phase. Themes derived from open-ended responses showed that participants found the hardest parts were pre-arrival and the first few weeks in the UK: 48% of the students reported academic difficulties such as exams, deadlines and lack of adjustment to the education system. Time management and study-life balance were the next most difficult issues, especially for those who reported themselves married. Finally, students reported getting social support from family and friends and used exercise as a coping strategy. Results give support to the value of ‘studying away’ strategies that can help students who are away from home to maintain wellbeing.
Independent Research as a Resident Physician: Novel Methods for Data Collection, Teaching, and Collaboration During Graduate Medical Training
Abstract: Since the mid-1990s, the US has seen a decline in research activities in medical education and academic health care centers. Our goal was to offer a multi-disciplinary experience for undergraduates to participate in a practical, hands-on research experience to increase the likelihood of entering STEM research careers. The authors structured a collaborative teaching environment to lead a group of over 25 undergraduate and graduate students in clinical research activities as part of the resident author’s research program during psychiatry graduate training. A particularly innovative component of this work, making the timeline and technical analysis possible, was the partnership with an industry sponsor. Much of the teaching program’s structure was inspired by the analogous program of the industry sponsor. This provided a structured clinical research experience for undergraduates, providing opportunities to participate in the study design, patient recruitment and enrollment, data collection and analysis phases of the project with more autonomy than typically available at this level of training. Students favored the experience with generally positive ratings of the program. Students gained skills and felt more comfortable in practical aspects of research and stated they were more likely to pursue a research career after this experience. This method may be a solution for other clinical trainees given their limited time and funding while serving to increase exposure to STEM research earlier in life to reverse the trend of declining research activity. This method can be used across other training institutions at different scales to achieve similar goals.
Abstract: Every individual has a different interpretation in understanding religion because of internal factors (differences in background, education, religious experience, environment that shapes character, and socio-economic status). The pattern of individuals understanding on religion is believed to be inseparable from the basic doctrine they acquired. Although, not infrequently the religion concepts originating from the doctrine is interfered by imagination and reality based on spiritual experiences. This research aims to determine the understanding and thinking development of the early childhood age 3-6 years old about religion interpretation. This research was a qualitative descriptive research. The research subjects were early childhood at Rumah Ibu Kindergarten, Sleman, and Yogyakarta. Data collection techniques were observations, in-depth interviews, and documentation. Data analysis were data reduction, data display and drawing conclusion and verification. The results of the research indicate that; 1) Religion is described by early childhood with symbols and worship rituals. Regarding the divine concept, children still describe God as egocentric and anthropomorphic, followed by God’s characteristics. 2) The interpretation of early childhood about religion is predominantly influenced by experiences, parents, teachers, and the surrounding environment. The findings of this research suggest that the cultivation of godliness must be able to develop children’s fantasies about the infinite nature of God, and also the children’s love and obedience to God associated to the problems that are close to the children’s live. Therefore, in addition to develop the fantasy power, factual learning is needed.