Vol. 4 Iss. 2

The Academic Dropout Wheel Analyzing the Antecedents of Higher Education Dropout in Education Studies

Hind Naaman

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain

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Abstract: Higher education dropout has been considered a major concern for several researchers in the field of education around the World. Although different studies were carried out to deal with the topic, they all faced common limitations. This paper explores the twofold research conducted to investigate higher education dropout in Education studies at two of the main Catalan public universities. First, a review of the different theoretical perspectives that tackled dropout was carried out to combine the direct and indirect dropout predictors. Second, some research was conductedin the faculties of Education in the selected two Catalan public universities to investigate the antecedents of higher education dropout. The utilized instrument discussed in this paper is the survey. In the first part, the predictors of higher education dropout were combined in a 5-layer model called the ̈Dimensions of Academic Dropout” wheel(Naaman, 2018). In the second part, the results of the survey analyzed quantitively revealed that dissatisfaction from the program and academic failure arethe most important antecedents of higher education dropout in education studies in Catalonia.

Keywords:  ¨Dimensions of Academic Dropout” wheel; dropout antecedents; Higher education dropout

Please Cite: Naaman, H. (2021). The Academic Dropout Wheel – Analyzing the Antecedents of Higher Education Dropout in Education Studies. The European Educational Researcher, (2), 133-153. https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.421



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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Investigationof the Turkish Cultural Adaptation of International Students Living in Turkey

 Khanım Eynullayeva & Murat Gökalp

Ondokuz Mayis University, TURKEY

Bedri Yavuz Hatunoglu

 Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, TURKEY    

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Abstract: In this study, the cultural adaptations of international students studying in Samsun in acculturation processes were examined. The cultural problems that international students inevitably face affect their adaptation to the countries they host. To investigate the effects of the international students’ some variables on the cultural adaptation in the context of Turkey constitutes the main objective of this study. In the study, it was examined whether the cultural adaptation levels of international students vary according to gender, place of residence, academic achievement level, education level, faculty they attend, and their age. Within the scope of the research, 670 foreign students participated in this study. According to the research results, the general adaptation level of the students is medium. While the participants’ age is a factor affecting cultural adaptation, the students’ cultural adaptation does not change according to their gender, place of residence, level of education, academic performance, and the faculties they attend.

Keywords: Academic Achievement; Adaptation Problems; Cultural Difference; Foreign Student

Please Cite: Eynullayeva, K., Gökalp, M., & Hatunoglu, B. Y. (2021). Investigation of the Turkish Cultural Adaptation of International Students Living in Turkey. The European Educational Researcher, 4(2), 167- 169. https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.422


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Students’ Difficulties in Applying the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy: Results of a Survey Research

Asila Halilović

 First Bosniak Gymnasium Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Vanes Mešić & Elvedin Hasović

University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Dževdeta Dervić

Second Gymnasium Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Download: 13, size: 0, date: 15.Jun.2021

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the conventional high school instruction about conservation of mechanical energy in Canton Sarajevo. To that end we tested 441 high school students from six different schools in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) for their competence to apply the law of conservation of mechanical energy. Concretely, students were expected to solve 5 open-ended tasks that covered conceptually different situations. In each task we asked a set of sub-questions to check whether the students possess all the prerequisite sub-competencies for systematic reasoning about conservation of mechanical energy. In addition, we investigated how students’ ideas about conservation of mechanical energy were affected by the choice of the physical system, as well as by the choice of the observed time interval. Data analysis was performed on the level of individual tasks. The students’ written answers were analyzed and the frequencies of most prominent student responses were reported. Generally, it has been shown that most high school students from Sarajevo fail to identify and distinguish internal, external, conservative and non-conservative forces. Also, many students think that applicability of the conservation law does not depend on the chosen physical system and its evolution over time. We could conclude that high school students’ use of the conservation law is mostly based on remembering similar problem solving experiences, rather than on relevant strategic knowledge.

Keywords: Conservation of mechanical energy; Energy analysis; Systems approach; Survey research.

Please Cite: Halilović, A., Mešić, V., Hasović, E. and Dervić, D. (2021). Students’ Difficulties in Applying the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy: Results of a Survey Research. The European Educational Researcher, 4(2), 171-192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.423


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Technology Integration of Turkish Elementary School: Teaching Literacy Skills in the Post-COVID-19 Era

Rıdvan Ata, Kasım Yıldırım, Pelin İpek & Umut Can Ataş

Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Turkey

Download: 18, size: 0, date: 15.Jun.2021

Abstract: This research aimed to explore the elementary school classroom teachers’ perceptions of technology integration into teaching literacy skills. A total of 122 elementary school classroom teachers working at different elementary schools from the middle socioeconomic status setting, enrolled in the study voluntarily. In this study, a self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was used. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to get descriptive statistics (frequencies) corresponding the research questions. The research findings indicated that most of the elementary school teachers employ different perspectives, including whole language, literature-based and balanced instruction, and curriculum and related textbooks to teach literacy skills. In addition, the findings showed that teachers use technology to increase the effectiveness of teaching literacy skills and their goals of technology integration to teach literacy skills differentiate. The teachers also benefit from the social media applications and professional organizations in increasing their awareness of technology integration into teaching literacy skills. These results expand our understanding of Turkish elementary school classroom teachers’ technology integration into teaching literacy skills by revealing their perceptions.

Keywords: Elementary school classroom teachers; Teaching literacy skills; Technology integration

Please Cite: Ata, R., Yıldırım, K., Ipek, P., & Ataş, U. C. (2021). Technology Integration of Turkish Elementary School: Teaching Literacy Skills in the Post-COVID-19 Era. The European Educational Researcher, 4(2), 193-207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.424


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Future jobs: Indonesian Primary Students’ Aspirations and Teachers’ predictions

Stefanus Christian Relmasira

Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia

Yiu Chi Lai & Chi Fuk Henry So

The Education University of Hong Kong, China

Download: 23, size: 0, date: 15.Jun.2021

Abstract: The transformation of occupations in Indonesia due to digital technologies, especially in Artificial Intelligence, becomes a challenge for current educators to prepare their students for future work skills. This research study seeks to understand what students’ career aspirations are and their teachers’ predictions about their students’ future careers. There were 125 Indonesian primary school students and 141 teachers in Central Java province involved in this research. Students were asked to draw the aspiration of their future jobs when they grow up in the next 15-20 years, and teachers were asked to draw their predictions of their students’ future careers. The results show some similarities and differences between students’ aspirations and teachers’ predictions. Both students and teachers have the same idea about the importance of jobs that emphasizing the use of creativity. However, students had a tendency to select their future careers related to creative and performing arts, whereas teachers predicted their students’ future jobs as teachers and lecturers. The data also shows that students incline to draw the use of high-technology tools in their future jobs, whereas teachers tend to describe the use of conventional tools in their students’ future careers. Further results are discussed in relation to the International Standard Classification of Occupations skill levels jobs.

Keywords: Automation; Artificial intelligence; Future jobs; Indonesia; Primary School; ISCO-08

Please Cite: Relmasira, S. C., Lai, Y. C., So, C. F. H. (2021). Future jobs: Indonesian Primary Students’ Aspirations and Teachers’ predictions. The European Educational Researcher, 2(5), 209-225.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.425


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Distributed Leadership: A Bibliometric Analysis Using Scopus Database (1981-2020)

García-Carreño, I.V.

University Pablo Olavide, Spain

Download: 15, size: 0, date: 15.Jun.2021

Abstract: Distributed Leadership is a conceptual and analytical approach to understanding leadership that is focused on interactions between leaders and those they lead with the goal of driving instructional improvement and improving student outcomes by developing high-quality teaching and an educational culture that enables all students to thrive. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research available on distributed leadership. As new social and educational demands emerge, leadership responses need to be reformed at all school levels to ensure a school’s ability to provide a high-quality education. These transformations must be promoted from within each school center. The author describes and covers a deep review of the literature between 1981 and 2020. The source data for this research, (321articles), is derived from SCOPUS, Biblometrix Studio, and VOSviewer. The terms and their clusters were illustrated on graphs, and density maps were utilized. General recommendations are provided and challenges are identified for the incorporation of DL changes into the management of schools. The findings show that the literature refers explicitly to DL, wherein there are a number of interesting insights provided by theoretical articles. A conclusion is givenwith recommendations for further multidisciplinary research at the intersection of the fields in order to show the holistic landscape of this field.

Keywords:  Bibliometric review; Bibliometrix analyzes R; Co-authorship; Distributed leadership; Keywords analyses; Science mapping; VOSviewer.

Please Cite: García-Carreño, I., V. (2021). Distributed Leadership: A Bibliometric Analysis Using Scopus Database (1981-2020).  The European Educational Researcher, 2(6), 227-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.426


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Levels of Ethnocentricism Among Teachers of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Mehmet Emre ÇELİK & Latif İLTAR

Download: 9, size: 0, date: 15.Jun.2021

Abstract: In this study, in which the levels of ethnocentrism of those who teach Turkish as a foreign language were examined in line with various variables, the general survey model within the scope of descriptive research was implemented. The research was carried out with 185 instructors who teach Turkish as a foreign language in various state or private institutions in the 2020-2021 academic year. In order to assess the ethnocentrism level of teachers, a 5-item Likert-type Ethnocentrism Scale, comprised of 20 questions, developed by Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) and which was later adapted to Turkish by Üstün (2011) was used. In the study, it was found that the levels of ethnocentrism of those who teach Turkish as a foreign language differ significantly according to such variables as gender, age, their holding a Turkish teaching certificate for foreigners and to the MA program they graduated from, yet it was also concluded that there was no significant difference according to the other variables as the institution they work for, the department they studied in, whether they know a foreign language, where they teach Turkish, and their intercultural communication competence.

Keywords: Etnocentricism; Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language; Intercultural Communication Competence.

Please Cite: Celik, M.E., Iltar, L.(2021). Levels of Ethnocentricism Among Teachers of Turkish as a Foreign Language. The European Educational Researcher,4(2), 251-266.DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.427


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2

Elementary School Teachers’ Views Scale on the Using Zoom in Compulsory Distance Education During the Pandemic: Psychometric Properties

Ceyhun Memiş

Download: 34, size: 0, date: 02.Jun.2021

Abstract: Just as important phenomena such as natural disasters, conflicts and pandemics have effects on people’s lives, new technologies also have impacts on people’s lives and lifestyles. As a part of COVID-19, many countries have been forced to practice distance education at almost all educational levels. The pandemic of COVID-19 inspired educators to schedule for online learning.
To help students learn, educators have used a range of online synchronous meeting technologies (SMTs). Zoom is a widely used, immersive, and easy-to-use SMT. In order to integrate Zoom application effectively which has started to be used in many countries and at all levels of education, it is essential to determine the teachers’ thoughts and attitudes about using Zoom in the distance education process. To assess teachers’ views, a valid and reliable measuring tool is needed. This research sought to create a valid and reliable scale that would assess teachers’ views on the use of Zoom in distance education based on this need. The scale validity and reliability analysis have used for content validity, EFA, CFA, Cronbach alpha, and Composite reliability. According to the study’s findings the scale is valid and reliable. Future researchers will be able to apply the developed scale in our study, to teachers working at various educational levels. Furthermore, the scale can be adapted for teachers serving in a variety of countries and cultures.

Keywords: Compulsory Distance Education; COVID 19; Elementary School Teachers’ View Scale; Zoom.

Please Cite: Memiş, C. (2021). Elementary School Teachers’ Views Scale on the Using Zoom in Compulsory Distance Education During the Pandemic: Psychometric Properties. The European Educational Researcher, 4(2), 267-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.428


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Vol. 4 Iss. 2