The European Educational Researcher

Earthquake and its Impacts on Education: Aftermath Nepal Quake 2015

The European Educational Researcher, Volume 3, Issue 3, October 2020, pp. 101-118
OPEN ACCESS VIEWS: 2224 DOWNLOADS: 1105 Publication date: 15 Nov 2020
Although earthquakes themselves do not kill people, they highlight the critical importance of physical infrastructure resilience, safety measures and preparedness for natural disasters. Earthquakes are one of several environmental crises that can be categorized as a natural hazard/disaster. This study uses the qualitative method of research. The semi-structured interview with follow up questions among the educational actors like students, head/teachers, officials from the district education office and the local NGO staff working in the field of education before and immediately after the earthquake. The content analyses of curriculum of secondary level and textbooks of grade IX and X as well as field visit/observation were carried out during the study. The result and the conclusion of this study show that following the 2015 earthquake, the preparation of emergency bags helped children and their families gather essential items in a ready-to-go bag specifically designed for disaster situations. Simulation activities in schools helped prepare students for future disasters, and there were also many initiatives to reduce student and teacher trauma following the 2015 quake, including the development of a credited 5-hour teacher professional development (TPD) counselling programme. The inclusion of school disaster risk reduction (DRR) education in the curriculum and textbooks containing information on earthquakes, their cause, effects and preventive measures have now been disseminated in many languages including Nepali and English.
Earthquake, Education, Impacts, Natural Disasters, Nepal
Basnet, B. K. (2020). Earthquake and its Impacts on Education: Aftermath Nepal Quake 2015. The European Educational Researcher, 3(3), 101-118.
  1. Alexander, D. C. (2017). Natural disasters. Routledge.
  2. Bankoff, G. (2004). The historical geography of disaster: “Vulnerability” and “local knowledge. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, & D. Hilhorst (Eds.), Mapping vulnerability: Disasters, development & people (pp. 25–36). London: Earthscan.
  3. Basnet, B. K. (2018). Earthquake and its Impacts in Education: Aftermath Nepal Quake 2015 presented at Clute Institute: Academic journals and International Conference. Colorado 80128, United States, 2018.
  4. Bhavnani, R. (2006). Natural Disaster Conflicts. Harvard University, Cambridge.
  5. Bracken, L., Ruszczyk, H. A., & Robinson, T. (Eds.). (2018). Evolving Narratives of Hazard and Risk: The Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal, 2015. Springer.)
  6. Bradley, D. T., McFarland, M., & Clarke, M. (2016). The effectiveness of disaster risk communication: a systematic review of intervention studies. In Effective Communication During Disasters (pp. 81-120). Apple Academic Press.
  7. Brooks, J. (2012). Be safe & have a plan. Inside Homeland Security, 11(1), 26.
  8. Coppola, D.P. (2015). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Kindle edition.
  9. Dangal, R. (2011). Country profile Nepal. Disaster risk management: policies and practices in Nepal. Kobe: Asian Disaster Reduction Center.
  10. Dixit, A. M., Shrestha, S. N., Guragain, R., Pandey, B. H., Oli, K. S., Adhikari, S. R., ... & Shrestha, N. (2018). Risk Management, Response, Relief, Recovery, Reconstruction, and Future Disaster Risk Reduction. In Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake (pp. 95-134).
  11. Duggal, Shashikant K. (2013). Earthquake-Resistant Design of Structures (2nd Edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from
  12. Farahat, T. (2010). Promotion of knowledge, attitude and practice towards swine flu A/H1N1: An intervention study on secondary school children of Menofia Governorate, Egypt. Menofia Med J, 23, 83-94.
  13. Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2014a). National preparedness. Retrieved from Massachusetts, USA
  14. Fothergill A, Squier E (2018) Women and children in the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. In: Kruhl JH, Adhikari R, Dorka UE (eds) Living under the Threat of Earthquakes—Short and Long-term Management of Earthquake Risks and Damage Prevention in Nepal, Springer, Berlin, p 253–271
  15. Frankenberg, E., Sikoki, B., Sumantri, C., Suriastini, W., & Thomas, D. (2013). Education, vulnerability, and resilience after a natural disaster. Ecology and society: a journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability, 18(2), 16.
  16. Gautam, D. (2017). Unearthed lessons of 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (MW 7.8): geotechnical earthquake engineering perspectives. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 8(2), 1358-1382.
  17. Green, B. L., Lindy, J. D., Grace, M. C., Gleser, G. C., Leonard, A. C., Korol, M., et al. (1990). Buffalo Creek survivors in the second decade: Stability of stress symptoms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatrics, 60 (1), 43–54
  18. ICIMOD (2015). Strategic framework for resilient livelihoods in earthquake-affected areas of Nepal. Integrated Center for Mountains Development, Kathmandu.
  19. Joshi, G. R., & Joshi, N. B. (2018). Economic loss from earthquake in Nepal and strategies for recovery and resilience building. In Living Under the Threat of Earthquakes (pp. 195-209). Springer, Cham.
  20. K. C., S. 2013. Community vulnerability to floods and landslides in Nepal. Ecology and Society 18(1): 8.
  21. Kennedy, J., Ashmore, J., Babister, E., &Kelman, I. (2008). The meaning of ‘build back better’: evidence from post‐tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka. Journal of contingencies and crisis management, 16(1), 24-36
  22. Kruhl, J. H., Adhikari, R., & Dorka, U. E. (2018). Earthquakes as Events of Inter-and Intra-disciplinary Character—With Special Reference to the Gorkha 2015 Earthquake in Nepal. In Living Under the Threat of Earthquakes (pp. 1-24). Springer, Cham.
  23. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2000). Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption. Risk analysis, 20(1), 13-26.
  24. Madsen, M. D., & Abell, N. (2010). Trauma Resilience Scale: Validation of protective factors associated with adaptation following trauma. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), 223-233.
  25. Mannakkara, S., & Wilkinson, S. (2013). Build back better: lessons from Sri Lanka’s recovery from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 7(3), 108-121.
  26. Merchant, A. (2015). Children and Disaster Education: An Analysis of Disaster Risk Reduction within the School Curricula of Oregon, Texas, and the Philippines.
  27. Nanda, R., & Raina, S. K. (2019). Integrating disaster risk reduction in school curriculum: A vision statement by a joint working group of university and medical teachers. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 33, 495-497.
  28. Oliver-Smith, A. (2004). Theorizing vulnerability in a globalized world: A political ecological perspective. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, & D. Hilhorst (Eds.), Mapping vulnerability: Disasters,development& people (pp. 10–24). London: Earthscan
  29. Paton, D., & Johnston, D. (2017). Disaster resilience: an integrated approach. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
  30. Paudel, R. C. (2018). Emotional care in social work. In Living Under the Threat of Earthquakes (pp. 273-284). Springer, Cham.
  31. Rodríguez, H., Donner, W., & Trainor, J. E. (2018). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Spinger.
  32. Shaluf, I. M. (2007). Disaster types. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.
  33. Sakai, T., Gajurel, A. P., & Tabata, H. (2015). Seismites in the Pleistocene succession and recurrence period of large earthquakes in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Geoenvironmental Disasters, 2(1), 25.
  34. Shi, L., Sun, J., Wei, D., & Qiu, J. (2019). Recover from the adversity: Functional connectivity basis of psychological resilience. Neuropsychologia, 122, 20-27.
  35. Smith, L. E., Bernal, D. R., Schwartz, B. S., Whitt, C. L., Christman, S. T., Donnelly, S., Wheatley, A., Guillaume, C., Nicolas, G., Kish, J., &Kobetz, E. (2014). Coping with vicarious trauma in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42(1), 2-12. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1912.2014.00040.
  36. Subedi, S., & Chhetri, M. B. P. (2019). Impacts of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake: Lessons Learnt from Nepal. In Earthquakes-Impact, Community Vulnerability and Resilience. IntechOpen.
  37. Tierney, K. J., Petak, W. J., & Hahn, H. (1988). Disabled persons and earthquake hazards. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.
  38. Tuladhar, G., Yatabe, R., Dahal, R. K., & Bhandary, N. P. (2015). Disaster risk reduction knowledge of local people in Nepal. Geoenvironmental Disasters, 2(1), 5.
  39. Ulak, N. (2015). Nepal's Earthquake-2015: Its Impact on Various Sectors. The Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 7, 58-86.
  40. UNICEF (2017, May, 17). Nepal Earthquake: Education for nearly 1 million children in jeopardy. Retrived from
  41. UNISDR (2009). UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland.
  42. Uprety, P., & Poudel, A. (2012). Earthquake risk perception among citizens in Kathmandu, Nepal. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2012(1), 3-10.
  43. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P. M., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Psychology Press.
  44. Zakour, M. J., & Gillespie, D. F. (2013). Community disaster vulnerability. Theory, Research, and Practice.
Creative Commons License